Glider from the game of Life, rising from the left




Topic: #formal-verification

Smart Contracts with Bugs


In a search of 970,898 live “smart” contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, using a new tool for formal verification, some researchers found 34,200 that have serious bugs resulting in (a) money (well, Ether cryptocurrency) held in escrow becoming permanently inaccessible to all parties; (b) money becoming available on demand to any Ethereum user; or (c) any Ethereum user being able to terminate the contract (again leaving all escrowed money inaccessible). Many of the buggy contracts were duplicates, but there were 2,365 non-duplicate bugs in the contracts examined.

“Finding the Greedy, Prodigal, and Suicidal Contracts at Scale”
Ivica Nikolić, Aashish Kolluri, Ilya Sergey, Prateek Saxena, and Aquinas Hobor, arXiv, February 16, 2018

#cryptocurrency #formal-verification #smart-contracts

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John David Stone (

created June 1, 2014 · last revised December 10, 2018